The GRO Index is a national schedule of births, marriages and deaths that began on 1st July 1837 when Civil Registration came into force.
The country was partitioned into civil registration districts, each of these districts then being divided into sub districts. A local registrar assumed responsibility for each of these sub districts.
The reasoning behind it was the government could discover how many people were living in England and Wales, how many children were born, and how many people were dying and causes of death.
The registrar general at the General Register Office, which is now part of the Office of National Statistics (ONS), assumed overall responsibility for the local registrars.
It is prepared quarterly within the year and listed alphabetically for births, marriages or deaths.
Until 1875, when the law was changed, parents were not required to register their children's births unless they were instructed to do so by a registrar. From 1875, parents had six weeks to register a birth, and if they had not done so by this time, a fine was imposed if they were caught.
Should you be unable to discover an event in the index you should check using the mother's maiden name because they could have been born before their parents' marriage.
The certificate for Harriet Cole, who was the daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth Cole (formerly Barker nee Dammant), is confusing because it does not state Barker was not her maiden name, but her former married name, her first husband William Barker having died in 1833.
I have discovered my great-grandparents never in fact married although they had over 10 children, their births all being registered under their father’s name. The birth certificates simply stated the mother’s married name, and her maiden name. There was nothing to suggest they were not actually married.
If you cannot find your ancestor in the GRO Index, it is possible he was in the Army and was posted overseas.
These indexes include registrations relating to members of the British Armed Forces who were posted overseas. Regimental registers and chaplains' returns also include information regarding army births that took place in the United Kingdom at barracks and garrisons.
The information included in the indexes incorporates:
Army chaplains' registers relate to births, marriages and deaths taking place overseas. A date range of two to three years is given in the index, which also includes name and place.
You can search the Army registers of baptisms, marriages and burials in UK and overseas garrisons (1808-2007) in the National Archives (WO 156). These registers mainly date from the 20th century.
Other indexes you can peruse in the National Archives include:
You are able to search the GRO Index in many County Record Offices, large reference libraries and some Family History Centres, where they are largely available on microfiche.
The GRO Index of births to 1916 and deaths to 1957 may be searched on the General Register Office's website, but you do have to register to use this index.
It can also be searched on-line at Freebmd. The index is prepared by volunteers, being partially indexed to 1950 at present but more is being added all the time. You are able to search through the images on the site however. Go to freebmd's homepage and click view images.
This will take you to a webpage where there is a sub-menu that allows you to search through birth, death or marriage records and then another menu on the following page will then take you to the pages where you may refine your search by years, quarters and finally the starting initial of their surname. This brings up a list of pages and you can then download or open the appropriate webpage.You may look at births, marriages and deaths through Find My Past. It has separate pages for births 1837-2006, marriages 1837-2008 and deaths 1837-2007. Many different subscriptions are available.
Once you have found the correct birth, marriage or death registration it is possible to order certificates on-line from the General Register Office.
The current price per certificate using the standard service is £9.25. If you wish to use the Priority Service the current price is £23.40. The GRO is trialling a system for the next three months where you are able to obtain a PDF version of a birth certificate (1837-1916) or death certificate (1837-1957) for £6.00.
Please view my guides to discover what information is contained on birth certificates, marriage certificates or death certificates.
This is an example of an entry in the GRO Index up to July-September 1911 (known as the GRO Index reference number):
Mar 1867 Dunkley, Herbert Hardingstone 3b 45
March 1867 is the period in which the event was registered, Hardingstone the registration district, and 3b 45 the volume and page number and is used so the birth certificate can be located when ordered.
As the public was allowed six weeks to register a birth, you may discover a person born on 29th March 1850 was not registered until the quarter to June 1850.
If searching through the microfiche index, the mother's maiden name is only included after September 1911, so this makes it more difficult to ascertain if you have found the appropriate entry before ordering the certificate. The GRO's online index however includes the mother's maiden name in most entries before 1911.
This is an example of an entry in the GRO Index up to January-March 1912 (GRO Number):
Sep 1864 Dunkley, Isaac Hardingstone 3b 61
Sep 1864 Jannett, Jane Hardingstone 3b 61
As you can see from the above entry, Isaac Dunkley and Jane Jannett share the same information so that shows they could have married each other. There could be more than one wedding on each original page, however, so the two parties may not have married each other.
1864 is the period in which the marriage was registered, Hardingstone the
registration district, and 3b 61 the volume and page number and is used in order that the marriage certificate can be located when ordered.
After the March quarter of 1912 the bride's maiden name is included.
This is an example of an entry in the GRO Index up to the January-March period of 1866 (GRO Number):
Jun 1862 McJanett Thomas Blaby 7a 27
June 1862 is the period in which the event was registered, Blaby the district, and 7a 27 the volume and page number and is used so the death certificate can be located when ordered.
If you are using the microfiche index, age at death is added from the March quarter of 1866 to June 1969, making it easier to locate the correct entry for your ancestor. The GRO's online index however now includes age at death of people dying before 1866.
June quarter of 1969, the deceased's birthdate is added, making
it much easier to determine whether you have the correct registration before ordering the certificate and also makes it easier to find the
appropriate birth registration when required.
Family Tree Resources > GRO Index